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What are the techniques used in direct method?

Grammar Translation Method

Sometimes also known as the Classical Method, this is a traditional teaching technique that was used to teach Latin and Greek and was particularly in vogue during the 16th Century.

  • Grammar Translation Method
  • Direct Method
  • Learn more:
  • 2. Direct Method
  • Which techniques could be used in a direct approach classroom?
  • What are the key features and techniques of direct method?

The focus at this time was on the translation of texts, grammar, and rote learning of vocabulary. There was no emphasis on speaking and listening comprehension because Latin and Greek were taught more as academic subjects rather than a means of oral

This teaching method is still common in many countries and institutions around the world, and still appeals to those interested in languages from an intellectual or linguistic perspective. However, it does little to improve your ability to use the language for oral communication.

What are the techniques used in direct method?
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Direct Method

This approach, also known as the ‘oral‘ or ‘natural‘ method, originated around the 1900s as an alternative to the traditional grammatical translation method. At this time teachers were
starting to experiment with teaching and educational models as previous techniques were failing to improve spoken communication.

The focus is on good pronunciation, with spontaneous use of the language, no translation, and little grammar analysis.

The Direct Method is based on the direct involvement of the student when speaking, and listening to, the foreign language in common everyday situations. Consequently, there is lots of oral interaction, spontaneous
use of the language, no translation, and little if any analysis of grammar rules and syntax.

The focus of the lessons is on good pronunciation, often introducing learners to phonetic symbols before they see standard writing examples.

The Direct Method continues to provoke interest and enthusiasm today, but it is not an easy methodology to use in a classroom situation. It requires small classes and high student motivation, and in the artificial environment of a classroom it is
difficult to generate natural situations of understanding and guarantee sufficient practice for everyone.

However, variants of this method have been developed where the teacher allows limited explanations in the student’s native language and explains some grammar rules to correct common errors a student may make when speaking.

One of the most famous supporters of this method was the German Maximilian Berlitz, who founded the Berlitz chain of private language

Some characteristics of this method are:

  • Lessons are in the target language
  • There is a focus on everyday vocabulary
  • Visual aids are used to teach vocabulary
  • Particular attention is placed on the accuracy of pronunciation and grammar
  • A systematic approach is developed for comprehension and oral expression


When – 1900 to 1930s approximately, some limited use into the 1970s
Focus – Everyday spoken language
Characteristics – Student learns by associating meaning directly in English
Supporters – Maximilian Berlitz, Carl Albert Krause


Learn more:

  • Overview of teaching methods
  • Audio-lingual method
  • Humanistic approaches
  • Communicative language teaching
  • Principled eclecticism

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    • 2.
      Direct Method

2. Direct Method


The direct method, also known as the conversational method or natural method, was developed by Maximilian Berlitz (1852- 1921) towards at the end of the 19th
century as a reaction to the dissatisfaction with the grammar Translation Method. This method it is called like that because the target language has to be direct connected with the meaning without translation into the native language. Furthermore, direct teaching is a systematic instructional method that requires the teacher to have a command of the subject matter. Hence, this method is based on behaviorist learning principles; moreover, it helps to get students attention.  This
method continues to provoke interest and enthusiasm today, but it is not an easy methodology to use in a classroom situation. For that reason, this method that almost disappeared as a distinct method during the 1930’s has become a tool for teachers to teach a foreign language. 


In this method, the role of the teacher is to direct the class activities, encourage students to
participate in class by asking them questions constantly, and corrects their mistakes immediately. Something really important in this role is that students and teachers are partners in the learning process. In the other hand, the student role is less passive than in the grammar translation method. Moreover, there is student self-correction; they have to speak a lot that means that their communicative skills are emphasized.


In this method the classroom instruction are conductive exclusively in the target language. So teachers should not use the mother tongue to teach them a new foreign language. Moreover, learners acquire the vocabulary by practicing every day. Something quite important is that the vocabulary is touch in the initial phase, and the grammar, reading and writing are introduced in the intermediate phase. The communication skills are built in a carefully
way. Also in this method the grammar is taught inductively. Furthermore speech and listening skills are developing in this method. Briefly, students should speak the 80% of the class.


Some technics that can be used are reading aloud. Students can read a paragraph aloud and the teacher is going to correct the mistakes on the spot. And another one can be dictation. In this case
teachers dictate a dialog or a paragraph to their students, and they have to write it down. At the end the teacher check them. At the end teacher can check it.


What are the techniques used in direct method?

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